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Pre-Black Friday deals are here! Start saving big now. Shop now. Report incorrect product info or prohibited items. Measure Motion and Maat Average rating: 0 out of 5 stars, based on 0 reviews Write a review. Harry Rogers. Out of stock. Delivery not available. Pickup not available. Add to List. Add to Registry. About This Item We aim to show you accurate product information. In addition, fluid loss due to compressive forces causes a redistribution of stress over the disc, resulting in stress peaks in the anulus 5 , thereby enhancing the risk of damage, either to the vertebral endplate or to the anulus.

In a preliminary in vitro study, using one specimen and a linear elastic finite element model 6 , it was suggested that finite element aided compensation for tissue deformation might be a feasible way to obtain a detailed map of signal intensity changes after a period of loading of intervertebral discs 7. For this purpose, serial MRI measurements were made during loading of bovine coccygeal intervertebral discs in vitro. The gradual deformation of the intervertebral disc tissue was followed with biphasic finite element models of the specimens.

Hypothesis and Theory ARTICLE

Four coccygeal Functional Spinal Units FSU's, one intervertebral disc plus two adjacent vertebrae were dissected from four bovine tails. This load is comparable to the force on human discs in supine posture 9.

Measuring Motion in Terms of Distance and Time

To prevent fluid loss through evaporation in the MR instrument, the FSU's had been wrapped in cling film. After recovery in saline at N compression during about 20 hr, the loading procedure in the MRI coil was repeated.

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MRI measurements were made on a 4. Each measurement, taking Within the 1. In one specimen FSU 3 only five subsequent measurements were made as a consequence of a technical failure of the MRI system. Curves of axial deformation of the specimens during loading on day 1 left and day 2 right.

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The symbols star, circle, square, and triangle for specimen 1 to 4, respectively indicate the time instant half way each MRI measurement. To avoid artifacts in the processing of MRI signals through the cling film or through a water film between the cling film and the tissue, a small margin was left between the outermost tissue margin and the outer contour of the model. Then the 2D element grids of the 31 transversal images were connected such that a 3D grid of elements was obtained, covering the disc and a part of both adjacent vertebrae.

To obtain element regions that followed the contours of the vertebral endplate, parabolic deformations were applied in axial direction Fig.

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  • Top: transversal MRI image through a bovine coccygeal intervertebral disc specimen 2 , just after the loading of the disc with N started. The right side shows the same image, with the circular finite element mesh that was generated over the image. Bottom: a sagittal reconstruction of the transversal images 2. Such reconstructions were used to impose the curved shape of the vertebral endplates to the finite element models right image.

    Note that in the bottom figures the scaling differs between the horizontal and vertical axes. For each of the four specimens, its measured axial compression was used to simulate the tissue deformation in the associated finite element model, using a commercially available finite element code Diana, TNO Delft, The Netherlands.

    This code uses the constitutive equations of the classical theory of linear isotropic poroelasticity 11 as governing differential equations. Using this theory, stresses that are calculated at each nodal point in the model are assumed to be made up by a pressure stress carried by the fluid and an effective stress carried by the solid. The deformed model, at the time instant half way each MRI measurement, was saved for further analysis. In this way, each MRI measurement was coupled to one deformed model that simulated the instantaneous tissue deformation. Thus, assuming perfect simulation of tissue deformation, one element always represented exactly the same tissue fraction within each FSU.

    The total axial deformation of the discs within the 1. The rate of deformation gradually decreased over time but did not reach zero within 1. The time instants half way the MRI measurements and consequently the deformations applied to the finite element models, associated with the specimens are indicated by symbols. To describe the signal intensities in functional regions, several element layers of the disc see Fig. In addition, average values within the five central to peripheral element rings see Fig.

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    • All averaged values were calculated after weighing for the volume of individual elements. The time series of signal intensities in the five central to peripheral disc rings Fig. However, the outermost ring only shows marginal changes in all four specimens.

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      Over all specimens, the signal decrease from the first to the last time step was The strongest loss of signal intensity was found in the most central rings in specimens 3 and 4 and in the second most central rings in specimens 1 and 2. These differences can not simply be traced back to variations in initial signal content. Specimen 1, for example, showed the highest signal loss in ring 2 just like specimen 2, Fig. Example of signal distribution a and b and signal intensity change c and d in two specimens during loading with N at the first day of measurements.

      In a and b , the horizontal axis represents the central to peripheral element rings. The numbered lines indicate the first 1 to last 7 MRI measurement during 1. In c and d , the signal intensity of the same two specimens averaged over all caudal to cranial regions is displayed against time horizontal axis. The numbers in this row indicate the central 1 to peripheral 5 element rings. Insturments and office for designer. Male hands draw with a pencil. Close up blurred concept of chief cooked oil unhealthy, but very satisfying protein tasty burger in casual bar. Close shot on a RED camera. Model girl with chocolate posing on camera on yellow background.

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